In theater history, the term is associated particularly with drama that adheres to the three unities. Dominant French dramatist of the first half of the 20th century.
A career diplomat, Claudel traveled to China in , to Brazil in with the composer Darius Milhaud as his secretary and to America in Partage de midi Break of Noon, draws on autobiographical elements, investigating both the guilt of adulterous love and the conflict between a religious vocation and sexual passion. He was awarded the Prix Ludmilla Tcherina in in recognition of his lifetime contribution to theater.
Although often impossible to classify, his works show affinities with both Surrealism and Expressionism: in the latter category, his emotional monologue La Voix humaine The Human Voice achieved success onstage , in a film version by Roberto Rossellini — , and when set as an opera by Francis Poulenc Theorists of drama, especially those working within the classical tradition, have expressed disquiet at the use of coincidence on the grounds that it defies verisimilitude, but dramatists have always known that theater audiences are seldom in practice troubled by such rational preoccupations.
The French national theater company and its home in Paris. Rachel led a renewed vogue for classical tragedy in the middle years of the century. Significant internal reconstruction of the building took place in — During the Franco-Prussian War and the siege of Paris — , the theater could not function normally, although fund-raising performances without costume were held, and the buildings were frequently commandeered for use as hospitals.
Perrin also introduced a system of season tickets. Les Beaux Jours Happy Days in The Salle Richelieu was extensively renovated in — and in Muriel Mayette — has held the post of administrative director since August French term meaning lachrymose or sentimental drama and referring to a genre popular in the 18th century. Succeeding companies at the same venue used the same name and became established as the most significant performers of drama in France.
After , under the leadership of Bellerose and with royal patronage, and particularly after their theater building was refurbished in , they reestablished themselves as the leading Paris company and for the first time put on rival productions of plays previously performed at the Marais; when Floridor joined them from that company, Pierre Corneille also gave them the first performances of his new plays.
This definition encompasses a very wide range of tones, from hilarious and grotesque clowning to sophisticated wit. In both the 19th and 20th centuries, the clear distinction between the tragic and the comic was broken down: Victor Hugo insisted that his drame fused together the sublime and the grotesque, and Absurd Theater similarly drew on extremes of hilarity and comic inventiveness to explore fundamentally serious themes.
An Italian theatrical tradition dependent on stock characters, schematized gestures, use of masks or visors and improvisation. Their performances, although based on a strong central story line Italian canovaccio, French canevas , consisted of separate comic routines for which the Italian word lazzi is also used in French , enabling the actors to incorporate local and contemporaneous references and to respond dynamically to each audience. Movement promulgating the political engagement of theatrical activity, particularly associated with the period after World War II.
A company of actors established in Paris in to perform mystery plays and given official status by Charles VI in Major French stage director of the interwar years. He was also involved in antisemitic politics at the time of the Dreyfus affair — If that play, which seems Shakespearean in its systematic defiance of all the aspects of unity, harmony and concision that were to characterize French classicism, had achieved greater success, the path of 17th-century French drama might have been very different.
Horace and Cinna are Roman tragedies exploring the relationship between politics and personal emotion, while Polyeucte is a martyr play. Following the failure of Pertharite in , he abandoned the theater for almost a decade, devoting himself to religious verse writing, but during that period he revised many of his earlier plays and published them, together with critical and theoretical texts, in a collected edition in Brother of Pierre Corneille and himself a top-ranking dramatist and opera librettist, although posterity has accorded him considerably less status than Pierre.
Like the latter, he produced successful works in many genres, and his tragedy Timocrate , performed at the Marais theater in the presence of the king, was the single most successful play in 17thcentury France. The complexity of his plots, often based on mistaken identity or other misunderstandings, and the sentimentality of his characterization and poetic language, appealed to his contemporaries, who were less concerned than posterity about his lack of originality and the artificiality of many of his situations. The clothes worn by actors form an integral part of the message received by the spectators.
The director and designer have discretion to impose a balance between realism and convention: costumes may reflect the period in which the action of the play is set, the period in which it was first performed or a different period to which the action has been transferred, or they may be purely symbolic. Seventeenth-century French actors owned their costumes and tended to use them indiscriminately, with at most some symbolic additions—ribbons or patches of ermine—to suggest a specific status or location.
Evocation of the ancient world was achieved by the use of togas for male characters.
Costume provided an essential ingredient in the Realist and Naturalist theater of the 19th century, dominated by the quest for accuracy and authenticity. Modern theater generally stresses the symbolism of costume rather than the depiction of any precise period. Pseudonym of Georges Victor Marcel Moinaux — , comic dramatist in the boulevard farce and vaudeville tradition, which he carried into the early 20th century.
She gained some notoriety through a particularly gruesome and spectacular suicide scene in Le Sphinx by Octave Feuillet — She retired in to live in the country with the banker Jacques Stern, whom she married in Her brother-in-law, the prolific portrait painter Carolus Duran — , left an impressive painting of her on horseback. Belgian actor, journalist and dramatist who divided his life between Brussels and Paris. Le Cocu magnifique obtained an international reputation, being directed all over Europe and by Vsevolod Meyerhold — in the Soviet Union. Artistic movement that flourished between and , associated particularly with Pablo Picasso — and Georges Braque — These plays are characterized by the exploration of a somewhat morbid psychology.
His thesis plays, exploring philosophical ideas and moral dilemmas in a Naturalist style, also included La Nouvelle Idole The New Idol, , which tackles the moral implications of scientific progress, and Terre inhumaine Inhuman Land, A nihilistic version of Surrealism, associated particularly with Tristan Tzara. Noted developer of early photography, also distinguished in his day as a scenic artist and stage lighting specialist.
They combine witty dialogue with a realistic depiction of the society of the time, poking fun at snobbery and pretentiousness and portraying with cynicism all levels of society, including the peasantry. He also wrote court entertainments and operatic parodies. Prolific popular novelist best known for racy police thrillers published under the pseudonym San Antonio. Jekyll and Mr.
Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson — Stage name of Joseph Jean-Baptiste Albouy — , actor. Stage name of Catherine Le Clerc du Rozet — , actress. Born Catherine Leclerc, she was both the daughter and the wife of actors: her father Claude Leclerc? Term used to describe the result of any technique, acting style or production device that has the effect of reminding the spectators that what they are witnessing is a performance rather than reality. Defamiliarization has its roots in Russian Formalist criticism of the early 20th century, when it was perceived as a function of all art to cast new light on the everyday; in drama it is often seen as having a double function, making the spectators reassess both their conventional lives and the role of theater in society.
She performed at the Gymnase and with Scribe and the actor-director Charles-Gaspard Delestre-Poirson — made it the most successful rival to the royal theater companies at that time. Late in her career she became a supporter of Victorien Sardou, and bought a theater which still bears her name in order to promote his plays. Dramatist, novelist and academic. Dramatist and poet whose lyrics were widely set to music.
She was a rival of Adrienne Lecouvreur and Mlle Clairon: her own reputation was based on the passionate intensity of her acting. What happens when immigrant heroes insistently define themselves in terms of suffering? London: New York, Paris: Sfelt, Texte critique avec une introduction, des notes, des appendices et un index par Armand Weil.
Prolific author of sentimental novels and melodramas, including Les Deux Orphelines The Two Orphan Girls, , and a dramatization of the popular novel Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours Around the World in Eighty Days, published , stage adaptation performed by Jules Verne — He has also appeared in more than 50 films and television dramas.
Actor, diplomat and dramatist whose works were successful in his lifetime but have been forgotten by posterity. Deutsch is also a prolific translator, particularly of English science fiction. He was opposed to Wagnerism but put forward a new conception of total performance to which painters, musicians and scenario writers all contributed. Philosopher and author, a major figure in the Enlightenment and the most prominent of the French Encyclopedists.
Diderot wrote a further comedy, Estil bon? Is He Good? Is He Evil? Hardouin appears to be partly autobiographical. In the course of his exploits he finds the statue of a Commander whom he has earlier killed; he playfully invites the statue to dine with him, and the play ends spectacularly when the statue drags Dom Juan down to a flaming underworld.
Former professor of dramaturgy at the Paris Conservatoire who succeeded Robert Abirached as French national director of theater and spectacle in Stage name of Marie Delaunay — , actress, the illegitimate daughter of members of a touring company. All speech in drama effectively operates on two levels: the characters address each other, and their remarks are conveyed to or overheard by an audience.
Such devices present problems to those theoretical schools of thought that insist on total verisimilitude. Double enunciation is the source of dramatic irony, since the full meaning of any remark is likely to be different in the minds of the onstage interlocutor and of the spectator.
In French as in many languages the basic word for theater, derived from the Greek word for action. The French word drame has a more technical sense, in both the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to a theatrical genre supported both by Denis Diderot and by the Romantic dramatists Victor Hugo and Alfred de Musset, in which elements of tragedy and comedy are combined to produce a more authentic and realistic representation.
Actor, dramatist and stage director. He built his reputation initially on witty improvisatory dialogues, performed on radio or stage and published under the title Diablogues Duchesnois was less physically attractive but won supporters for her voice and spontaneous delivery.
She retired in Dramatist who adapted the plays of William Shakespeare for performance in French.
Because he was not versed in English, he based his version on earlier literary translations and like English dramatists of the 17th and 18th centuries produced plays that were more regular and classical than the originals. He insisted on the primacy of text over directorial gimmicks. Early Romantic author most remembered for his novels but also an important dramatist in the period when the influence of William Shakespeare was first being felt.
She was a rival of Adrienne Lecouvreur and Mlle Clairon: her own reputation was based on the passionate intensity of her acting. Professional name used by Dora Angela Duncan — , American dancer and choreographer. She worked in Paris from In he returned to journalism and became an influential critic, author and dramatist. Authorial pseudonym of Marguerite Donnadieu — , author and dramatist.
Un père en colère: Littérature (French Edition) - Kindle edition by Jean-Sébastien Hongre. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or. Un père en colère [Jean-Sébastien Hongre] on mabfegodext.tk Un père en colère: Littérature (French Edition) and millions of other books are available for.
From an Indochinese background, she came to Paris in and began her literary career as a novelist. Le Square , revised , based on her own novel of had more impact as a radio play than onstage. Publicly critical of Alexandre Hardy in , he belonged to the generation of dramatists who heralded the classical period by fostering the introduction of greater regularity. Stage and professional name used by Alex Martin — , actor, stage director and theater administrator.
Although tempted to leave, they feel obliged to remain on this spot, where they are to meet Godot. Their desultory, often meaningless and directionless conversation is interrupted by the arrival, not of Godot but of Pozzo, a theatrical sadist who leads his slave, Lucky, on a long lead.
It is not so much a play about waiting, whatever Godot may be taken to represent, but a demonstration of the act of waiting; the characters have more in common with clowns than with representational types, the dialogue is more like the content of a nightmare than a rational discourse. It is in these ways that En Attendant Godot, like much French drama of the midth century, challenges both the lifestyle of the theater-going classes and their expectations about theater itself. They were characterized by wearing the costume of traditional court jesters and by a light-hearted approach to material, which sometimes brought them into conflict with religious authorities.
Stage director. It has been plausibly argued that his influence, replacing to some extent that of Seneca, which had dominated previous French tragic drama, was more decisive than Jansenism in shaping the bleak tragic outlook of Jean Racine. In France, Vincent van Gogh — conveyed inner turmoil through the swirling brush strokes of such works as The Starry Night , while Henri Matisse — and the Fauvists scandalized the public by their unconventional use of color. Later Expressionist painters, such as Emil Nolde — , Georges Rouault — and Paul Klee — , were increasingly disenchanted with bourgeois materialism, and it was this attitude that allied them with other art forms, including literature, drama and opera.
Although Expressionism in literature is primarily associated with Germany, whereas the French reaction against Realism is found in Symbolism, the creation and production of French drama in the first three decades of the 20th century were significantly influenced by the fiction of Franz Kafka — , the operas of Alban Berg — and the dramas of August Strindberg — and Gerhart Hauptmann — , all of which depicted a world in which the human spirit had been distorted by industrialization, bureaucracy and mechanization.